Timeline Important Events During the Second Temple Era

There is a conflict among Jewish historians as to the date of the destruction of the First Temple by the Babylonians.  The timeline presented below shows 423 B.C.E. as the date.  The other well-known date is 163 years earlier, in 586 B.C.E.

Thus, there exists a 163-year gap in the timeline of Jewish History, with that period of time lying in the period of the First Temple.   What happened in those missing years, or whether there are, in fact, missing years, is an unresolved mystery.

3338/423 B.C.E. Destruction of First Temple and beginning of Babylonian Exile
3389/372 B.C.E. Babylon falls to Medes and Persians under Darius the Mede and Cyrus the Great of Persia
3391/370 B.C.E. Cyrus reigns; permits Jews to return to Eretz Yisrael
3408/353 B.C.E. Darius the Persian permits Jews to rebuild Temple
3442/319 B.C.E. Beginning of Greek era
3448/313 B.C.E. Egyptian Ptolemaic dynasty rules Eretz Yisrael
3562/199 B.C.E. Antiochus III the Great, scion of the Seleucid dynasty and ruler of Syria, wrests Eretz Yisrael from Egypt
3571/190 B.C.E. Rome defeats Antiochus III at Magnesia
3586/175 B.C.E. Antiochus IV reigns
3594/168 B.C.E. Desecration of Temple by Antiochus
3597/165 B.C.E. Conquest of Temple by Hasmoneans, the miracle of Chanukah 
3598/163 B.C.E. Antiochus IV dies
3599/162 B.C.E. His son, Antiochus V besieges Jerusalem
3600/161 B.C.E. Demetrius I (son of Seleucus IV) rules; Alcimus appointed Kohen Gadol, defeat and death of Syrian general Nikanor (13 Adar)
3601 /160 B.C.E. Yehudah killed in battle; Yonasan elected leader of the Jewish rebellion
3602/159 B.C.E. Alcimus dies
3609/152 B.C.E. Alexander (Balas) I, alleged son of Antiochus IV, contests rule of Demetrius I; both recognize Yonasan as Kohen Gadol
3610/151 B.C.E. Alexander I rules
3614/147 B.C.E Alexander I deposed (by Ptolemy IV king of Egypt); Demetrius II (son of Demetrius I) rules
3617/144 B.C.E. Tryphon deposes Demetrius II (who escapes), and rules on (approx.) behalf of the infant Antiochus VI (son of Alexander I)
3619/142 B.C.E. Tryphon tricks Yonasan and kills him; Shimon takes over Kehunah Gedolah; proclaims himself 'Prince of the Jews'
3619/142 B.C.E. Tryphon kills Antiochus VI and proclaims himself king
3621/140 B.C.E. Sanhedrin and the People proclaim Shimon 'Prince of the Jews' 18 Elul).
3621-3725/ Rule of the Hasmonean dynasty (Shimon, Yochanan Hyrkanos,
140-36 B.C.E. Yehudah Aristobulus, Alexander Yannai, Queen Alexandra Hyrkanos and Aristobulus)
3630/131 B.C.E. Yochanan Hyrkanos forms an alliance with Antiochus VII
3632/129 B.C.E. Antiochus VII dies
3698/63 B.C.E. Roman consul Pompei conquers Jerusalem
3725-3828/    Rule of Herodian dynasty and Roman governors (Herod, 36 B.C.E.-68 C.E. Archelaus, Roman governors, Agrippa I, Roman governors)
3828/68 C.E.   Destruction of Second Temple by Romans (according to some, the year was 3829)

*The dates in this table pertaining to the events of Chanukah (3585-3621) have been taken from I Maccabees and converted into Creation and Common Era dates.